Maui’s New Year’s Resolution

My name is Maui, and I am overweight.

Maui posedI haven’t always been this way. I used to be a thin, strapping, scrapping cat, toughing it out on the mean streets of Hamilton.  And then that car came out of nowhere……and that’s when my life changed forever.
My mom happened to be working at the hospital that night, and she saved my life. Literally. I heard her talking to the Animal Control agent, saying that she wanted to save me, even though he said I should be ‘put down’, whatever that means.  I was pretty scared.  But she gave me some great drugs and a nice cuddle, and a few weeks (and two surgeries later) I was feeling much better.

You can read about my story here:  http://guelphvet.ca/blog/2012/05/07/mauis-lucky-day/

Since she rescued me, I’ve been living the life of luxury, and quite honestly I’ve simply let myself go.  The food she gives’ me is so good I usually eat my portion and everyone else’s as well.  Sometimes, if I’m feeling ambitious, I can climb up and wiggle the lid off the food bin and crawl right in.  Mmmmmm.  Food coma. Maui relaxingI know I’ve been on diets before, but this time I’m gonna take it seriously.  No more overeating. No more food bin diving.  No more fruit loops that baby Asher drops on the floor. Fruit Loop MauiI’m going to get my body back, and I’m going to be more healthy.  When I crawl through the cat door to the food room, I have to squish through because my body makes contact on all sides.  I want to be able to make it up the stairs without taking a break halfway. And I really want to be able to run fast when the baby is crawling my way. He’s cute but he likes to pull my tail.

So join me as I begin my weight loss journey. 2016 is my year.

Stay tuned for more information and stories from Maui’s weight loss journey!

In the Know for Feline Nutrition

King tutFeline Nutrition

Feeding your cat a quality, well balanced feline specific diet is important to their overall wellbeing.  Since felines are of desert origin they are obligate carnivores and require meat in their diet. Also, because of this desert origin cats typically drink less water and this can become problematic. It’s important to encourage cats to take in more water by having access to fresh water at all times. Using a pet drinking water fountain is an excellent enticement to drink as well as supplementing with canned cat food. Most cats graze when they eat and will have several small meals throughout the day. This, however can be a problem for cats prone to weight problems, or who have a tendency to overindulge themselves. It is important to only have an appropriate measured amount out for them to eat within the day and be sure to monitor your cat’s weight and body condition regularly. The following points are important to consider when choosing an appropriate diet/ feeding regime for your cat.

  • Kittens, adult cats, and senior cats all have very different nutritional requirements, much like baby, adult and geriatric humans, so avoid diets claimed for all life stages.thirsty kitty
  • If home cooking for your cat is your preference it is important to follow a specific recipe that has been designed by a professional who specializes in nutrition to ensure it is properly balanced. A recent study found 90% of homemade pet food to be nutritionally unbalanced and incomplete.
  • The words ‘Holistic’ or ‘Human Grade’ have no legal definition for pet food, so they can be used on any pet food label without any relation to the ingredients.
  • By products are products produced in the making of something else (ex/flax seed oil, corn oil and soy oil are all by products). Animal by-product meal is an excellent source of nutrients and protein. Avoid foods containing generic name by-products (meat-meal, Animal By-product meal) and go for by products with the source named (Chicken by-product meal).
  • Choose diets with only 1-2 protein sources, since too many proteins sources can increase the cat’s likelihood of having a sensitivity/reaction. 80% of reported food allergies in cats are to Beef, Dairy, and Fish.

munching cat

 

Choosing a food for your cat from all the available options can be very overwhelming as the pet food industry relies greatly on persuasive advertising to sell their products. Veterinary health care providers are your best source for pet food questions. Here at Guelph Animal Hospital we have several different Pet food options for your Cat:

  • Life stage diets and clinically specific dry and canned  foods
  • Supplement and balanced recipe for homemade diets
  • Freeze dried complete & balanced whole foods (just add water)
  • Minimally processed, grain free diets
  • Frozen completely balanced whole food diets

 

Nutrition: Small Dog Formulas

Small Dogs Need Diets Made Just For Them!

We all know the old adage – you are what you eat. This philosophy applies to the furry
little-dog-with-giant-bone-200x172members of our families as well. Personalized healthcare has the ability to go beyond the exam room and into every meal, with ingredients tailored towards optimal health for dogs of every size. Small dogs are predisposed to different diseases than their giant breed counterparts – for example they are more likely to suffer from urinary tract infections and dental disease. Not only are these diseases painful for your pet, but they can be costly to treat; dental disease requires surgical intervention and can lead to whole body infection if left untreated. But why treat these diseases when they can be prevented through diet?! A number of veterinary pet food lines such as Royal Canin and Hills offer preventative foods that work to reduce the likelihood of these diseases developing. Below are some of the benefits of feeding a diet specific to your small dog’s needs:

Dental Benefits: Hills and Royal Canin both offer dental specific food that have ingredients that actively prevent plaque – which is a film of bacteria that naturally builds up on teeth over time – from calcifying into disease causing tartar. Even kibble size is designed to maximize these dental benefits for your pet.

S/O Index: Royal Canin also formulates their small breed diets with s/o index – a fancy way of saying these diets prevent the accumulation of struvite or oxalate crystals from forming in the urinary tract of your pets and causing painful infections.

Come in and talk to a Guelph Animal Hospital team member today – we are more than happy to answer any questions you may have!

Good Dental Health Starts Here

Dirty Teeth? Smelly Breath? Try These!

We all know how important it is to take care of our teeth, and the same principles apply to our pets’ teeth as well. It would be so easy if our pets could brush and floss their own teeth but the responsibility falls upon their loving owners. Many options are available to help ensure your pet’s mouth is clean and fresh, here are some easy to use products:

 CET-Chews-200x176

Virbac CET Chews for cats and dogs are treated with an enzyme which helps to break down and prevent plaque on their teeth, and they taste great! When used as part of a daily dental routine they can help reduce signs of dental disease. $11.22-$32.28

Gear-Toy

The Toothcleaner toy from Hunter is a fun and easy way to clean your dog’s teeth while they play! The rubber nubs and small spaces brush your dog’s teeth as they chew, providing a mechanical plaque removal system. $13-$15

Royal-Canin-dental-chew

 Medi-Cal Medi-Chews are a great tasting chew for dogs that provides mechanical and enzymatic tartar control. They also have anti-bacterial green tea extracts which help promote nice breath! $8.02-$12.00

 dental-toys-200x200

The best way to help prevent dental disease is to brush your pet’s teeth daily (just like our own!). CET makes a variety of yummy toothpaste flavours and different types of toothbrushes to ensure that you can find the one that makes brushing time as easy as possible. $4.76-$8.86

 All of these items are available in the Guelph Animal Hospital boutique, come and speak with a staff member about which one would be best for your pet!

Sara – Boutique Specialist

Feeding Whole Foods to Your Pet

Alternatives to Raw Food Diets

As an advocate for providing whole food nutrients to pets, when it comes to Raw Food Diets I prefer to take a more cautious approach.    Below is a detailed article from the US FDA website reviewing a very recent two-year study carried out by the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine in which they screened over 1,000 samples of pet food for bacteria that can cause foodborne illnesses.   The results showed that  raw pet food is more likely than other types of pet food to contain Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes.    These bacteria pose a very significant risk to humans as well as some pets.                                 

Many pets have unique nutritional needs based on their age, size, breed, activity level, past or present medical conditions, and risk factors and all of these should be taken into consideration along with owner preferences and lifestyle in order to make the best dietary recommendation for each pet.    That is why at Guelph Animal Hospital we believe in providing a large range of pet food options and recommendations for our clients. 

 As I have mentioned in previous articles the two most important factors to consider in choosing the right food for your pet are:  1. Does the food provide balanced nutrition? (including all the essential nutrients in proper balance and fully available for optimum health).  2. Is the food safe? (from potentially dangerous microbes, parasites or marked nutrient deficiency or excess).   

For owners interested in feeding whole foods (foods that are the least processed or foods that are free of excess corn, wheat and soy products) the following options are available at Guelph Animal Hospital:

     1.   “Complete and Balanced” – 101 recipes for Dogs and a separate book for Cats – by known veterinary nutritionist- Hilary Watson.   These home-made diet recipes come with a complete nutrient breakdown and can be prepared in your own home with the addition of Hilary’s Blend (vitamin and mineral mix).

     2.   Buddy’s Fresh Food – soon to be renamed – “Fresh Rx”.      Fresh Rx™ is a veterinary exclusive brand of “Fresh Frozen” foods that can be used as a complete and balanced meal or as a meal topper over a preferred kibble diet to add variety and increase palatability.  As an advanced nutritional diet, Fresh Rx is formulated for optimal nutritional absorption. The vitamins, minerals and pre and probiotics are not exposed to heat or excessive mechanical stress. Therefore maximum nutrition is included in each meal.   Fresh Rx is NOT a raw diet.  All meats are “gently” cooked to the minimum temperature requirements outlined by Health Canada to kill E-Coli and salmonella.  This is done in order to eliminate the risk of pathogen contamination which can result from handling and feeding raw diets.  The result – Fresh Rx is a diet that is safe and convenient to handle for the whole family.   Fresh Rx diets are made using local ingredients.

3.   Rayne Clinical Nutrition Diets – http://www.raynecanada.ca/  - now available in veterinary clinics through-out Canada.  Working with PhD nutritionists and veterinary specialists they provide line of whole food based nutrition including fresh frozen, shelf stable “stews” and dry kibble with no corn, wheat or animal by-products and no artificial colours, flavors or preservatives.

To learn more about Whole Food Options available at Guelph Animal Hospital come and visit the whole foods section of our new Pet Boutique or feel free to e-mail us at info@guelphvet.com .

Still interested in feeding Raw Meat to your pet? – feel free to contact me at the above e-mail regarding the safest raw food options available.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Protecting and Promoting Your Health

http://www.fda.gov/animalveterinary/resourcesforyou/animalhealthliteracy/ucm373757.htm

Get the Facts! Raw Pet Food Diets can be Dangerous to You and Your Pet

In a recent two-year study, the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) screened over 1,000 samples of pet food for bacteria that can cause foodborne illnesses.1 (The illnesses are called “foodborne” because the bacteria are carried, or “borne,” in or on contaminated food.) The study showed that, compared to other types of pet food tested, raw pet food was more likely to be contaminated with disease-causing bacteria.

The Pet Food Study

Raw pet food was not included in the first year of the study. In the second year spanning from October 2011 through July 2012, CVM expanded the study to include 196 samples of commercially available raw dog and cat food. The center bought a variety of raw pet food online from different manufacturers and had the products shipped directly to six participating laboratories.2 The raw pet food products were usually frozen in tube-like packages and made from ground meat or sausage.

The participating laboratories analyzed the raw pet food for harmful bacteria, including Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. In past projects, CVM had monitored dog and cat food for the presence of Salmonella. But before this study, the center “had not investigated the occurrence of Listeria in pet food,” said Dr. Renate Reimschuessel, a researcher at CVM’s Office of Research and one of the study’s principal investigators. Dr. Reimschuessel further noted that “quite a large percentage of the raw foods for pets we tested were positive for the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.” (Pathogens are disease-causing germs, like some bacteria. Not all bacteria are harmful pathogens, though. Some bacteria are helpful to people and animals, such as those that live in the intestines and contribute to a healthy gut.)

Of the 196 raw pet food samples analyzed, 15 were positive for Salmonella and 32 were positive for L. monocytogenes (see Table 1).

Table 1: Number and type of pet food samples that tested positive for Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes (Years 1 & 2)

Type of Pet Food Sample

No. samples tested

No. positive for Salmonella

No. positive for L. monocytogenes

 Raw pet food  196  15  32
 Dry exotic pet fooda  190  0  0
 Jerky-type treatsb  190  0  0
 Semi-moist dog foodc  120  0  0
 Semi-moist cat foodc  120  0  0
 Dry dog foodd  120  0  0
 Dry cat foodd  120  1  0
a Non-cat and non-dog food, such as dry pellets for hamsters, gerbils, rabbits, amphibians, and birds.
b Included chicken jerky and pig ear-type products.
c Typically packaged in pouches for retail sale, such as (1) pouched dog and cat food; and
(2) food treats shaped like bacon, fish, pork chops, and burgers.
dIncluded pellet- or kibble-type food typically packaged in bags for retail sale.Note: CVM did not collect or test canned and wet pet food samples in this study.

Based on the study’s results, CVM is concerned about the public health risk of raw pet food diets. As Dr. Reimschuessel explained, the study “identified a potential health risk for the pets eating the raw food, and for the owners handling the product.” Owners who feed their pet a raw diet may have a higher risk of getting infected with Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes.

Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness from Raw Pet Food

Because raw pet food is more likely than other types of pet food to contain Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, the single best thing you can do to prevent infection is to not feed your pet a raw diet. However, the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine is aware that some people prefer to feed their pets this type of diet.

If you choose to feed raw pet food to your pet, be aware that you can infect yourself with Salmonella or L. monocytogenes by spreading the bacteria from the contaminated food to your mouth. For instance, you may accidentally ingest the bacteria if you touch your mouth while preparing the raw food or after handling a contaminated utensil. If you get Salmonella or L. monocytogenes on your hands or clothing, you can also spread the bacteria to other people, objects, and surfaces.

Here are some tips to prevent infection with Salmonella and L. monocytogenes:

  • Thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water (for at least 20 seconds) after handling raw pet food, and after touching surfaces or objects that have come in contact with the raw food. Potential contaminated surfaces include countertops and the inside of refrigerators and microwaves. Potential contaminated objects include kitchen utensils, feeding bowls, and cutting boards.
  • Thoroughly clean and disinfect all surfaces and objects that come in contact with raw pet food. First wash with hot soapy water and then follow with a disinfectant. A solution of 1 tablespoon bleach to 1 quart (4 cups) water is an effective disinfectant. For a larger supply of the disinfectant solution, add ¼ cup bleach to 1 gallon (16 cups) water. You can also run items through the dishwasher after each use to clean and disinfect them.

The Difference between Cleaning and Disinfecting

Cleaning removes germs (like bacteria) and dirt from surfaces and objects. Cleaning works by using soap (or detergent) and water to physically remove germs and dirt. This process doesn’t necessarily kill germs, but by removing them, cleaning lowers the number of germs and the risk of spreading infection.

Disinfecting kills germs on surfaces and objects. Disinfecting works by using chemicals, such as bleach, to kill germs. This process doesn’t necessarily clean dirty surfaces and objects or remove germs, but by killing germs after cleaning, disinfecting can further lower the risk of spreading infection.

Source: How to Clean and Disinfect Schools to Help Slow the Spread of Flu1 – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  • Freeze raw meat and poultry products until you are ready to use them, and thaw them in your refrigerator or microwave, not on your countertop or in your sink.
  • Carefully handle raw and frozen meat and poultry products. Don’t rinse raw meat, poultry, fish, and seafood. Bacteria in the raw juices can splash and spread to other food and surfaces.
  • Keep raw food separate from other food.
  • Immediately cover and refrigerate what your pet doesn’t eat, or throw the leftovers out safely.
  • If you’re using raw ingredients to make your own cooked pet food, be sure to cook all food to a proper internal temperature as measured by a food thermometer. Thorough cooking kills Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, and other harmful foodborne bacteria.
  • Don’t kiss your pet around its mouth, and don’t let your pet lick your face. This is especially important after your pet has just finished eating raw food.
  • Thoroughly wash your hands after touching or being licked by your pet. If your pet gives you a “kiss,” be sure to also wash your face.

No matter what type of pet food you feed your pet, you should always follow these safe handling instructions2.

Salmonella

Salmonella bacteria cause the foodborne illness salmonellosis. Named after Daniel E. Salmon, a veterinarian who spent his career studying animal diseases for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Salmonella bacteria have been known to cause illness for over 100 years.

Each year in the U.S., about 42,000 laboratory-confirmed cases of salmonellosis in people are reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Because many milder cases are not diagnosed or reported, CDC estimates that 1.2 million cases of salmonellosis in people occur annually in the U.S. CDC also estimates that 400 people die each year from the disease.

A common source of Salmonella infection is contaminated food, such as:

  • Raw or undercooked meat and poultry products;
  • Raw or undercooked eggs and egg products;
  • Raw or unpasteurized milk and other dairy products; and
  • Raw fruits and vegetables.

Symptoms start within 12 hours to three days after a person eats contaminated food. People can also ingest Salmonella by handling contaminated food and then transferring the bacteria from their hands to their mouths. Most people recover from salmonellosis in four to seven days without treatment. Children under 5, pregnant woman, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems (such as people with cancer or other diseases) are at higher risk for salmonellosis and may develop more severe symptoms.

Symptoms of salmonellosis in people include:

  • Fever;
  • Diarrhea (which may be bloody);
  • Nausea;
  • Vomiting; and
  • Stomach pain.

Animals, especially cattle, chickens, rodents, reptiles, and amphibians, can naturally carry Salmonella in their intestines and show no signs of illness. People can get salmonellosis from handling these animals and then transferring the bacteria from their hands to their mouths.

Symptoms of salmonellosis in dogs and cats include:

  • Vomiting;
  • Diarrhea (which may be bloody);
  • Fever;
  • Loss of appetite; and
  • Decreased activity level.

FDA has a zero-tolerance policy for Salmonella in pet food3, meaning the agency intends to take action against any commercially-made pet food found to be contaminated with the harmful bacteria.

Listeria monocytogenes

You’ve probably heard of Salmonella and are familiar with the symptoms of salmonellosis, but you may not have heard much about the lesser known foodborne illness listeriosis. Listeriosis is caused by the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and is a leading cause of hospitalization and death due to foodborne illness, especially in industrialized countries.

Compared to other foodborne illnesses, listeriosis is rare but very serious with a high mortality rate of 20 to 30 percent. Over 90 percent of people with listeriosis are hospitalized. Each year in the U.S., CDC estimates that about 1,600 people become seriously ill with listeriosis, and of these, most authors estimate about 250 will die. The European Union has similar numbers: in 2009, there were 1,645 reported cases of listeriosis, with an estimated 270 deaths (Wieczorek et al).

Three scientists, led by E.G.D. Murray, first isolated L. monocytogenes in 1926 from the livers of sick rabbits and guinea pigs.3 But the bacteria weren’t identified as a major cause of foodborne illness in people until the 1980s when several large outbreaks occurred.

L. monocytogenes is widespread in the environment, especially in soil and water. Animals, particularly cattle, can carry the bacteria without appearing sick.

L. monocytogenes have several characteristics that allow them to survive a long time in both food and food processing factories—they can live in both acidic and salty conditions, and unlike most bacteria, they can grow and multiply at low temperatures. This last characteristic makes the bacteria a potential problem even in properly refrigerated food. One study also found a relatively high percentage of frozen raw beef products contaminated with L. monocytogenes (Pao and Ettinger). This finding highlights the ability of the bacteria to thrive in cold environments.

People become infected with L. monocytogenes by eating contaminated food or by handling contaminated food and then transferring the bacteria from their hands to their mouths. Babies can become infected in utero or at birth if their mothers ate contaminated food during pregnancy.

The bacteria can contaminate a variety of food, such as:

  • Raw meat;
  • Ready-to-eat processed meat such as hot dogs and deli meat (both factory-sealed packages and products sold at deli counters);
  • Raw vegetables;
  • Refrigerated pates;
  • Ready-to-eat smoked seafood and raw seafood;
  • Prepared or stored salads, including coleslaw and fresh fruit salad;
  • Melons;
  • Soft cheeses made with unpasteurized milk; and
  • Unpasteurized milk and milk products.

Pasteurization and cooking kill L. monocytogenes. However, in some ready-to-eat food, such as hot dogs and deli meats, contamination may occur after the food is cooked in the factory but before it’s packaged.

Listeriosis occurs almost exclusively in pregnant women, newborns, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems. People with HIV/AIDS are about 300 times more likely to get the disease than people with normal immune systems. Healthy children and adults occasionally get listeriosis, but rarely become seriously ill.

L. monocytogenes can invade many places in the body, including the:

  • Brain;
  • Membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (called the “meninges”);
  • Gastrointestinal tract; and
  • Bloodstream.

Symptoms of listeriosis vary depending on the body site, or sites, affected. The length of time between when a person ingests the bacteria and first shows symptoms—the incubation period—also varies depending on which body sites are affected. On average, the incubation period for listeriosis is three weeks. This is long compared to other, more common foodborne illnesses like salmonellosis.

Pregnant Women and Newborns

Pregnant women are about 20 times more likely to get listeriosis than other healthy adults. Scientists don’t know why pregnant women are so susceptible to the disease. It usually affects pregnant women who are healthy and don’t have other risk factors.

The most common, and sometimes only, sign of listeriosis in pregnant women is fever. They often have a flu-like illness with non-specific symptoms, such as fatigue and muscle aches. The symptoms are often temporary and go away on their own. Some pregnant women show no symptoms.

Food Safety for Moms-to-Be: While You’re Pregnant – Listeria4 (En español5)

While listeriosis in the mother is mild, infection in the fetus and newborn can be severe. The disease causes miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth, and life-threatening infection of the newborn.

Newborns suffer the most serious consequences of listeriosis. They have either early- or late-onset disease depending on when their symptoms first appear (see Table 2).

Table 2: Comparison of Early- and Late-onset Listeriosis in Newborns

 

Early-onset listeriosis

Late-onset listeriosis

Baby

Usually premature Usually full-term and healthy

Mother

Recent flu-like illness before delivery No signs of illness before delivery

Source of infection

In utero from L. monocytogenes bacteria crossing the placenta from mother to baby Often unclear—the baby is possibly infected at birth from contact with the mother’s birth canal or gastrointestinal tract (maternal feces), or after birth from the environment

Develops

0 to 7 days after birth (average is 36 hours) 5 to 30 days after birth (average is 14 days)

Commonly Causes

Blood infection and pneumonia Meningitis

Severity

Up to one-third of newborns die despite adequate treatment with antibiotics Better prognosis than early-onset disease
Sources: Jacobson; Mylonakis et al; Poulsen and Czuprynski; and the Victorian Department of Health (Australia)

 

Non-pregnant People 

Symptoms of listeriosis in people who aren’t pregnant include fever, muscle aches, headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance, and convulsions.

Animals

Although L. monocytogenes can infect many animal species, dogs and cats rarely get listeriosis and they usually don’t show signs of disease. One reference mentions only six reported cases in dogs from 1947 to 2000, and the dogs showed a wide range of symptoms (Läikkö et al).

Listeriosis is mainly seen in ruminants, such as cattle, goats, and sheep. Sheep are particularly sensitive to the bacteria. Ruminants most commonly show severe neurologic symptoms, such as loss of balance, circling, and unusual body spasms. Fever, loss of appetite, and decreased activity level are also usually seen. Some ruminant herds have had large numbers of late-term pregnancy losses. Newborn ruminants typically develop a blood infection. Listeriosis in ruminants most often occurs in the winter and early spring and is likely caused by the animals eating spoiled silage.

Listeriosis is more common in rabbits and rodents than dogs and cats. Rabbits and chinchillas (South American rodents) are particularly sensitive to the bacteria. The disease usually causes a blood infection. Pregnancy loss and uterine inflammation are also common, especially in chinchillas. These reproductive problems are often associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea or constipation. Large outbreaks of listeriosis have been seen in captive rabbits and rodents. The source of infection in these outbreaks was thought to be contaminated food.

References for Listeria and Listeriosis

 

  • Goulet V, King LA, Vaillant V, et al. What is the incubation period for listeriosis? BMC Infect Dis 2013;13:11-17.
  • Hoelzer K, Pouillot R, Dennis S. Animal models of listeriosis: a comparative review of the current state of the art and lessons learned. Vet Res 2012;43:18-44.
  • Jackson KA, Iwamoto M, Swerdlow D. Pregnancy-associated listeriosis. Epidemiol Infect 2010;138:1503-1509.
  • Jacobson L. Listeriosis. Pediatr Rev 2008;29:410-411.
  • Läikkö T, Båverud V, Danielsson-Tham, M-L, et al. Canine tonsillitis associated with Listeria monocytogenes. Vet Rec 2004;154:732.
  • Mylonakis E, Paliou M, Hohmann EL, et al. Listeriosis during pregnancy: a case series and review of 222 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 2002;81:260-269.
  • Pao S, Ettinger MR. Comparison of the microbial quality of ground beef and ground beef patties from Internet and local retail markets. J Food Prot 2009;72:1722-1726.
  • Poulsen KP, Czuprynski, CJ. Pathogenesis of listeriosis during pregnancy. Anim Health Res Rev 2013;14:30-39.
  • Poulsen KP, Faith NG, Steinberg H, et al. Bacterial load and inflammation in fetal tissues is not dependent on IL-17a or IL-22 in 10-14 day pregnant mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes. Microb Pathog 2013;56:47-52.
  • Schroeder H, van Rensburg, IB. Generalised Listeria monocytogenes infection in a dog. J S Afr Vet Assoc 1993;64:133-136.
  • Wieczorek K, Dmowska K, Osek J. Characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from retail beef meat in Poland. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2012;9:681-685.